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Locating Lights, Transforwers,Materials And Dccessories Required
Show Typical Switched Wiring Circuits For A Lighting Installation
Whichever type of fitting you intend to use, draw a scale floor plan of the room, clearly mark where items are and where you wish relevant lights to be. When you have completed your plan, mark the ceiling / wall with the centre position of the fitting, making sure you mark the position of cutouts, before cutting or drilling, ensuring there are no obstructions, cable or pipes behind. Fitting lights on the ground floor may require you to have access to the floor above so ensure floorboards can be accessed.
If installing recessed down lights ensure there is enough clearance in the ceiling void, you will find minimum distances stated in the supplied instructions. Ensure the integrity of any fire barrier is maintained especially where there is a dwelling above the site of the fitting(s).
FIG. 6 show typical switched wiring circuits for a lighting installation.
alternatively you can use the existing 230V supply from the loop-in terminals of a ceiling rose supplying existing 230V lighting. Always read the light fittings instructions before attempting any work and if in doubt, consult a qualified electrician. Lighting circuits are usually controlled from a 5amp fuse at the main board and most new installations require this to be protected by an RCD operating at 30mA. In a two-storey house there are usually two lighting circuits, one for each floor.
Using the above information, you should now be able to calculate the amount of cable and where any switches should go. NOTE: always allow extra cable as it is easier to trim back than to add. This will also give you some flexibility if you have to adjust the positioning of a fitting.
Fitting Lights And Electrical Connections
Installing a light fitting is straightforward but at this stage don't fit lamps into their housings. Once all the cabling is in place you can then fix any brackets using suitable fixings ( taking care not to drill or screw through any cables ). Ensure all terminations are secure and comply with the Wiring Regulations that your light fitting complies with BS EN 60598, the British Standard for light fittings.
NOTE: Fittings classed as Double Insulated ( Class II ) or SELV ( Class III ) do not require an earth and fitting instructions should be followed. TIP: When using multiple lamp fittings, or when low voltage fittings are supplied via a transformer, a bulb / lamp reaches the end of its life; it is good practice, to replace as soon as possible. Failure to do so may cause 'overvolting' of the other bulbs / lamps and could reduce their lifespan by up to 50%. Always ensure that the bulbs / lamps are sufficiently cool before replacing.
Detection Of Motion
with the European Standard for luminaries (BS EN 60598) and carry a CE mark. Depending on where the light fitting is to be sited will determine the degree of protection the product will need against ingress of moisture. This is known as an IP rating i.e. IP44. Simply put, the first number of an IP rating (0-6) is the degree of protection against debris, dust and even 'little fingers' getting in. The second number (0-8) is its resistance to moisture. IP68 is the highest degree of protection offered against dust, solid objects & moisture.
Outdoor Light Of Materials And Dccessories Required
Outdoor light fittings will require some maintenance, so choose one made from a material suitable for the local environmental conditions i.e. if you live near to the sea, select a plastic or marine grade stainless steel product that will require minimal cleaning and is not prone to corrosion. Always check manufacturer's zcare instructions.
Having decided, what, where, how you wish to light and how many different moods you want to create, make a plan of your garden, identifying lengths, quantities of materials and accessories required. These may include switches, P.I.R. sensors, conduit, armoured cable (above 50V), an RCD, fixings, weatherproof junctions boxes, cable joints, glands etc.
NOTE: Outdoor Fittings operating under 50V can use conduit to protect the cable. Fittings operating above 50V must use armoured cable and be protected by a RCD, with a residual operating current not exceeding 30mA.
Once you have selected your fittings and accessories, using your plan, physically mark out the areas in your garden where the lighting is to be sited and the cable is to be run. Prepare the ground for the cables by digging channels - for cables operating at above 50V or where the ground is likely to be disturbed, the trench must be at least 500mm deep.
The cable route should be marked with yellow and black tape. It should be just 150mm below the surface, above buried cable; this is to warn persons excavating the ground in the future that a cable is present. It is also a good idea to keep a garden plan showing all cable routes and depths for future reference.
NOTE: When laying cable, always leave an extra length for any last minute adjustments; it is easier to reduce the length than it is to add. Don't back fill until you have completed, tested and are happy with the positioning of the system.
When installing recessed ground lighting in a drive or pathway, you should provide suitable drainage; bedding the base of the fitting onto gravel can easily do this.
Once all the cabling is in place and you are happy with the location of the fittings, make sure the securing method is suitable for the size and weight of the fitting, the surface to which it is to be fixed and its exposure to the elements. When all this is done, connect the supply cable, re-check all connections and fit bulbs / lights. Only when you are happy with the installation and it has been checked, can an Authorised Competent Person' connect the mains power supply. Switch on and test. Back fill any trenches and make good.
Even the best garden lighting designers don't always get it right first time. If this happens to you, it may just be a case of a little adjustment or even some trial and error but it's worth persevering. You can easily add a new circuit or more lights if necessary.
NOTE: Always keep your garden lighting plans for future reference.
All outdoor electrical work must conform to BS 7671 the current IEE wiring regulations, and Part P of Building Regulations, you are advised to check with your local authorities Building Control Department, or an Authorised Competent Person, before starting. If in any doubt about electrical work, contact a qualified person.
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